The overarching scientific objective of the University of Florida Health Cancer Center (UFHCC) Cancer Population Sciences program (CPS) is to understand and reduce cancer risks and cancer-related burden within the UFHCC catchment area. Cancer Population Sciences members attend a meeting The UFHCC catchment area comprises 22 counties with high rates of cancer and cancer risk factors, including smoking, among residents who face disadvantages due to race/ethnicity, poverty, rurality, older age and poor health literacy. To address these challenges and to better understand contributors to the burden of cancer, CPS members conduct population-based and cancer control research to understand risk factors for cancer, improve cancer prevention and screening, symptom management, and palliative care and to enhance survivorship for patients. These projects study the biological, psychological and sociological underpinnings of cancer-related symptoms and treatment-related toxicities. Another research focus of the CPS program is assessing (in order to eliminate) cancer-related health disparities. This community-engaged cancer research addresses disparities faced by rural, African-American, low-income and older individuals in the UFHCC catchment area, including low cancer screening rates, advanced stage diagnoses and high mortality. The CPS research is conducted in real world clinical and community settings using novel data science methodologies and tools to determine the effects of interventions delivered in the context within which individuals live and seek care.